An HOA is a not-for-profit corporation created by a real estate developer to manage and maintain a neighborhood or community.  Control of the HOA eventually transfers from the developer to a volunteer Board of Directors made up of HOA members (homeowners).  Membership in the HOA(s) is mandatory.  With the purchase of your home, you have agreed to become a member and to comply with all recorded Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions (CCRs) for your particular neighborhood.  You may also live in an area with multiple HOA's such as Viera which has Master Associations and Neighborhood/District Associations.